Fauna and Flora

Biological Importance of Mount Hermon KBA

Mount Hermon (Jabal Al Sheihk) is a KBA defined based on floral endemism for which it was declared an Important Plant Area – IPA and potentially qualifies as an Important Bird Area – IBA for which it is home to many breeding birds and a major bottleneck for migratory birds.


  • In addition to olives, there are fruit trees mainly grapes and apricots, in addition to sumac, wild pistachios and acorns are also cultivated in the area. Local community are known to produce high quality grape molasses. 
  • The area is also known for raising goats and grazing with livestock and the productions of goat milk and its derivatives, especially “Labneh”.  
  • The region is also distinguished by the famous types of honey because of its plant diversity. Bees collect nectar from many types of plants.
  • There are 221 species of plants, including:
  • 24 unique types
  • 115 species were first discovered in the mountain ecosystem.
    (N. Arnold, S. Baydoun, L. Chalak & Th. Raus. 2015)
  • Most of the plant species studied are either species used in the medicinal field and pharmaceutical industry or in the kitchen / human and pet food, or in feeding birds and bees, or in folk medicine. Some of them are toxic, but they may be of great use in very small quantities.


Animal  Status
Wolf Threatened with extinction locally
Striped Hyena Threatened with extinction locally and globally 
Hedgehog Threatened with extinction locally
Jackal Not threatened, but in continuous decline
Wild Treacherous Cat Threatened with extinction locally
Six types of Bat Threatened with extinction locally
Red Fox  Threatened with extinction locally
Wild Rabbit  Not threatened but rare species 

95 species were recorded in the region, 7 of which are globally threatened and 14 are of limited distribution in their environment and are on the verge of extinction. These birds are:

Threatened Bird Species:

  • Egyptian Vulture (EN) 
  • Greater Spotted Eagle (VU) 
  • Steppe Eagle (EN) 
  • Imperial Eagle (VU) 
  • Sociable Plover (CR) 
  • Great Snipe (NT) 
  • Syrian Serin (VU) 

Limited Distribution Birds:

  • Cream colored Cursor 
  • Tawny Owl 
  • White-throated Robin 
  • Finch’s Wheatear 
  • Scrub Warbler 
  • Sardinian Warbler 
  • Upcher’s Warbler 
  • Western Rock Nuthatch 
  • Sombre Tit 
  • Masked Shrike 
  • Pale Rock Sparrow
    Crimson-winged Finch 
  • Cretzschmar’s Bunting 
  • Black-headed Bunting 

Collectively, globally threatened birds and birds of limited distribution seen in Mount Hermon classify the area as an important site for birds and thus a major biodiversity site. In addition, the presence of the social lapwing species, which is globally threatened with imminent extinction, makes the study area an essential site of biological diversity. These two features guarantee the declaration of Mount Hermon as an important global site for the preservation of biological diversity and an important site for birds: IBA / KBA

11 reptile species have been identified in Mount Hermon

  • Acantodactylus schreiberi syriaca (EN)
    (Bijttger, l879)
  • Parvilacerta fraasii (EN)
    (Lehrs, 1910)
  • Phoenicolacerta  kulzeri kulzeri (EN)
    (Miiller & Wettstein. 1932)


Back to top button